The circulatory system is a network of veins, arteries, and capillaries and functions in delivering oxygen to the tissues and removing the waste from the body.  The cycle of blood circulation begins in the heart where it pumps the blood to the lungs to make it oxygenated. This oxygenated blood is returned back to the heart which pumps it to the body tissues.  Once the oxygenated blood is delivered to the tissues, it collects the wastes from the tissues. This oxygen-deprived blood is returned to the heart so that it can be pumped again to the lungs to fill it with oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. Symptoms like exercise intolerance, weakness, poor appetite, and difficulty in breathing might indicate a problem with the heart.

Blood is a type of connective tissue and contains different types of cells that are specialized in their functions. Red blood cells are specific for delivering oxygen to the tissues while white blood cells function in combating infections. Other than cells, blood contains certain nutrients, proteins, and hormones. Any deficiency or excess of these components leads to different diseases in canines. 


Following are some common abnormalities of the heart

  • Heart Failure- the inability of the heart muscles to pump the blood to the body.
  • Disturbance of electrical function of the heart- the electrical system activates the muscles to pump the blood. In case of any disturbance in the electrical system, the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently. This results in the condition like atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
  • Heart valve abnormality- any abnormality in the function of the heart results in the pumping of the heart in uncoordinated directions.
  • The congenital disorder which includes malformation of heart and blood vessels like Patent Ductus Arteriosis, PDA and Subaortic Stenosis, SAS
  • Malformation of heart and blood vessels with ade e.g., Mitral Valve Insufficiency, MVI
  • Cardiomyopathy- abnormality of heart muscles
  • Heartworm infection